Glossary

Alston: entry number in R. C. Alston's A Bibliography of the English Language to 1800 (1965-)

analyzed lexicon: see lexicon

bilingual lexicon: see lexicon

catchword: "The first word of the following page inserted at the right-hand lower corner of each page of a book, below the last line" (OED). LEME transcriptions do not record catchwords.

collocation: two or more words or phrases that appear repeatedly together, before or after one another, within a small passage

colophon: "The inscription or device, sometimes pictorial or emblematic, formerly placed at the end of a book or manuscript, and containing the title, the scribe's or printer's name, date and place of printing, etc." (OED)

concordance: an index of different words from a text, with a reference citation about their location in that text, and sometimes a brief context or quotation

context: the text within which a cited word or phrase appears

character-set: the letters, numbers, and special characters in LEME are encoded in UTF-8 (Unicode)

definition, logical: an explanation of a thing, normally specifying its species and essential features so as to differentiate it from other things

definition, lexical: an explanation of a word's meaning or sense, normally specifying enough information to differentiate it from other words

display: the representation of a lexical text

dittography: "the unintentional repetition of a letter or word, or series of letters or words, by a copyist" (OED)

EMEDD: Early Modern English Dictionaries database

emendation: an editorial correction of an error usually made by the compositor or scribe. LEME retains the error within a tag in the underlying encoded text

encoding: see source encoding

encyclopedic-lexical: see lexical encyclopedia

entity reference: a conventional notation in SGML and XML used to represent a special character that may not be found on a standard keyboard

errata: a list of corrections to errors in a printed text

error: editorial emendation , normally of a printer's mistake (not a correction of fact or interpretation)

expansion: the writing out of a sequence of characters that have been abbreviated or contracted

explanation: the post-headword or post-lemmatic part of word-entry that gives a definition, a synonym, a corresponding term in another language, or some other comment

expression: a word, phrase, or sentence that is either cited as such or that appears in a language that differs from its context

form: the principal initial term in a word-entry, and what the post-lemmatic segment explains. The editorially-made modern headword is created from the form. See also sub-form

full word entry: see word entry, full

global search: see search, global

hanging word: a word at the end of a line that is suspended at the end of the previous or following line

hard word: a word borrowed from another language, a neologism or invented word, or a term of art that has yet to be absorbed into the mother tongue

headword: the term by which a word-entry is sorted in an alphabetical or topical lexicon

headword, modernized: an editorial headword, encoded anywhere in a word-entry, that puts an inflected, old-spelling, or variant word-form into a modern-spelling form that is conventionally employed for headwords in modern dictionaries. This is called lemmatization. Nouns are represented by the nominative singular inflection, and verbs by the infinitive form.

HELP: menu on Welcome Page. This allows a reader to read the editorial introduction, the help section, and a description of those who bring out LEME, and to submit comments and questions.

imprint: the printer and the publisher of a book

incipit: the first line of a manuscript

LEME WORD LIST: item under WORD LIST menu. This screen allows a reader to search or browse from a complete list of all expressions (of whatever language and in whatever position) from all lexical works in the LEME database.

lemmatized headword: see headword, modernized

lexical encyclopedia: a lexical text whose word-entries describe things in the world more than explain the words that denote them

LEXICONS: menu on Welcome Page. This allows a reader to choose five ways of browsing an index of the lexical works in the Early Modern period, by author, title, date, subject, and genre.

lexicon: a text with lexical content, whether organized formally into word-entries or distributed through running text as definitions or explanations of words or things

lexicon genre: the type of lexical work, one of multilingual dictionary, glossary, or vocabulary, English dictionary or glossary, grammar, hard-word and term-of-art dictionary or glossary, indexes of proper and place names, spelling texts, and treatises (without an explicit lexical structure)

lexicon subject: the content of a lexical work, such as herbs, the sea, the law, medicine, and so on

lexicon, analyzed: a lexical text that has had its headwords editorially-lemmatized and that has been segmented by headword, explanation, sub-headwords, sub-explanations, and cross-references. This analysis enables restriction of searches of analyzed lexical works by the lemmatized spelling of their headwords, and by the position of the words to be retrieved

lexicon, bilingual: a lexical text that has parallel English and foreign-language texts or that gives word-entries that translate between English and another language

lexicon, displayable: a lexical text whose transcription can be viewed, page by page, word-entry by word-entry, within LEME. Only analyzed lexicons can be displayed.

lexicon, polyglot: a lexical text that has parallel English and two or more foreign-language texts or that gives word-entries that translate between English and two or more other languages

lexicon, searchable: any lexical text in LEME may be searched, whether analyzed or not

lexicon, unanalyzed: a lexical work that may be searched within LEME but that cannot be searched with restrictions or be displayed, page by page, entry by entry see ADVANCED LEXICON SEARCH see QUICK LEXICON SEARCH

ligature: joined letters, such as æ

MODERN HEADWORDS SEARCH: item under SEARCH menu. This screen enables a reader to select from one of two lists of editorially-modernized headwords from word-entries in historical lexicons, one list of words in alphabetical sequence, and another list of words by part of speech

modern headword: see headword, modernized

normalized headword: see headword, modernized

NOTEPAD: menu on Welcome Page. This screen enables a reader to print or to email word-entries saved to the notepad.

notes: editorial notes on word-forms or word-entries occur from time to time in LEME transcriptions and may be viewed from the word-entry display

page text: parts of a lexical text that are not encoded as word-entries, such as an introduction

part of speech: the MODERN HEADWORDS SEARCH allows two kinds of searches and displays, alphabetically and by part of speech (abbreviation, adjective, adverb, conjunction, determiner or article, exclamation or interjection, name, noun, number, prefix, preposition, pronoun, relative, suffix, and verb

pattern: a search that consists of one or more letters or numbers, and one or more special pattern-matching characters. In computer science, this is termed a regular expression. Six special characters -- ? + * ( | ) -- are available. The question mark ? stands for a possible single letter: for example, the search pattern ham?let retrieves instances of hamlet, hamelet, hammlet, etc. The plus sign + stands for a required letter: for example, the search pattern mo+e retrieves instances of mode, mone, moue, etc. The asterisk stands for zero or more letters: for example, the search pattern mu*er retrieves instances of murther, murder, mummer, etc. The remaining three special characters enclose a character class that stands for any one of three specified characters, separated from one another by a rule. For example, the search pattern m(a|i)stere retrieves instances of mastere or mistere but not mystere, etc. Patterns can be combined. For example, the search pattern t(a|e|i|o|u)ss* retrieves instances of tuss, tossed, tassel, etc.

PERIOD WORD-LIST: item under WORD LIST menu. This screen allows a reader to search or browse from a complete list of all expressions (of whatever language and in whatever position) from all works in the database of more than 10,000 texts in the EEBO/TCP corpus.

pointing: punctuation marks

polyglot lexicon: see lexicon

post-lemmatic segment: the explanatory part of a word-entry

proximity search: see search, proximity

QUICK LEXICON SEARCH: item under SEARCH menu. This screen allows a reader to search for words that can be restricted only by date.

reset: a button that resets a search to default conditions

restricted search: see search, restricted

results: see search results

running title: a short title or heading found at the top of a page that does not divide the text into different sections. LEME transcriptions do not record running titles.

Schäfer: entry number in Jürgen Schäfer's Early Modern English Lexicography (1989)

SEARCH: menu on Welcome Page see ADVANCED LEXICON SEARCH see MODERN HEADWORDS SEARCH see QUICK LEXICON SEARCH

search term: a word, phrase, sequence of characters, or pattern typed into a LEME search field for retrieval

search results: the tabular list of word-entries that are returned by a search

search, Boolean: an advanced LEME search that retrieves word-entries according to whether all search terms are found in them (using the operator and), at least one search term is found in them (the operator or), or one or more search terms is excluded from them (the operator not)

search, character: a search for a sequence of characters that may be part of a word

search, global: a search through all lexical texts in LEME

search, keyword: a search for a word or term

search, proximity: a search for two or more keywords, sequences of characters, or patterns that occur near, or not near, one another within a certain context (a specified number of words)

search, quick: a LEME keyword search that may have only one restriction, a date or a range

search, restricted: a search for a keyword, a sequences of character, or a pattern that occurs in word-entries which satisfy one or more the following criteria -- date, language, author, title, genre, subject, STC/Wing catalogue number, location in the word-entry, and size of context

search, word: see search, keyword

signature: "A letter or figure, a set or combination of letters or figures, etc., placed by the printer at the foot of the first page (and frequently on one or more of the succeeding pages) of every sheet in a book, for the purpose of showing the order in which these are to be placed or bound" (OED). . LEME transcriptions encode but do not transcribe signatures.

soft hyphen: an entity reference that indicates a break in a word over a line-break (distinguished from a hard hyphen, which indicates a compounding)

source encoding: XML-like tags in LEME transcriptions mark the parts of word-entries, and other features of texts, so as to facilitate their searching and retrieval

special characters: see entity reference

spelling list: a lexical text that lists English words either for inventorying the vocabulary of a language or for standardizing orthography

sub-form: the principal initial term in a sub-entry, usually a phrasal construction that includes the form, or an inflection of the form

term of art: an Early Modern English expression for a word that belongs to a professional or occupational register and may not be widely known to speakers at large

text type: printed book or manuscript

transcription source: the copy of the edition, or the manuscript, used as the basis for a LEME transcription of a lexicon text

treatise: a lexical genre of works that explain or define or comment on words or things in running prose or marginal notes rather than in explicitly structured word-entries

unanalyzed lexicon: see lexicon

vocabulary: a collection of words or word-entries intended to satisfy a specific purpose, such as to represent the language of a given subject or topic

word browse: to view and range through a word list

word of the day: a LEME word-entry selected at random and appearing on the Welcome Page each time it is opened

word search: see search

word entry: a headword (lemma) or word-form, accompanied by an explanation (a definition, a synonym, a corresponding term in another language)

word entry, full: unanalyzed word entry

word entry record: a pop-up window that appears when a reader clicks on one of the LEME search results that result from a search. The word entry record holds the full text of a retrieved word-entry and enables a reader to store it in the NOTEPAD, view other word-entries with the same modern headword, obtain the word-entry's permanent URL, call up the lexicon's bibliographic record, see the underlying source encoding of the word-entry (including its original lineation), and browse the full text (if displayable)

word-group: a sequence of word-entries found under an identifying heading, such as a letter of the alphabet or a topic name

WORD LIST: menu on Welcome Page. This allows a reader to call up the LEME and Period Word Lists.